source: trunk/debathena/NOTES @ 23454

Revision 23454, 25.4 KB checked in by amb, 15 years ago (diff)
Added helpful note about adding the athena10 repository key when setting up an Athena 10 builder server.
1This hierarchy contains Debian/Ubuntu-specific materials, also known
2as "Debathena".  The contents are:
4* debathena - Debathena-specific software packages such as PAM and NSS
5  modules.
7* config - Packages for configuring native system software in a manner
8  appropriate for Athena.
10* meta - Packages which contain nothing but dependencies on other
11  packages and serve as an installation convenience.
13* scripts - Build scripts and supporting materials.
15Debathena is a SIPB project, and its infrastructure and procedures
16will need to be adapted for Athena 10.  For the moment this file will
17document the Debathena procedures as they are, not as they will be.
18The current procedures do not even use this svn repository yet.
20Debian software used by Debathena:
22  * schroot - Used to manage build chroot environments for each
23    Debian/Ubuntu version.  We use the lvm-snapshot schroot type,
24    which allows rapid construction of ephemeral copies of template
25    "source" chroots, so that every binary package build is done in a
26    clean environment.
28  * debuild - Used to create Debian source packages from package
29    source directories.
31  * sbuild - Used to build binary packages from source packages inside
32    schroot environments.
34  * equivs - Used to create packages which only contain dependency
35    information.  Somewhat of a dirty hack, since it doesn't keep
36    proper changelogs, but it reduces overhead.
38  * CDBS (Common Debian Build System) - Referenced by debian/rules
39    files in packages.  Contains standard build rules to cut down on
40    per-package boilerplate.
42  * reprepro - Used to upload packages into the apt repositories.
44  * approx - Used to create a local cache of Debian packages on the
45    build server.  This cache is referenced by the build chroots for
46    improved performance.
48The remainder of this file documents procedures useful to Athena 10
49developers and the release engineer.
51Developers: Preferences setup
54You will probably want a $HOME/.devscripts file containing the
57DEBUILD_DPKG_BUILDPACKAGE_OPTS="-sa -us -uc -i -I.svn"
59This will save you from having to specify those options every time you
60run debuild.  Athena 10 scripts do not assume the above preferences,
61but the instructions in this file do.  The options mean:
63  * Look for original source as a tarfile or create one.
64  * Do not sign the source package.
65  * Do not sign the changes file.
66  * Ignore common version control metadata files when creating diffs.
67  * Ignore .svn paths when creating tarballs.
69You will also want a $HOME/.sbuildrc file containing the following:
71  $nolog = 1;
72  $mailto = 'yourusername';
73  $log_dir = '/tmp/sbuild-logs';
74  $maintainer_name = 'Debathena Project <>';
75  $force_orig_source = 1;
76  $sbuild_mode = "user";
77  1;
79You should also set the environment variable DEBATHENA_APT to
82Developers: Preparing a change
85To prepare a change to a regular package (a source tree containing a
86debian/ subdir), make the edits in a checkout and record a changelog
87entry.  You can either edit debian/changelog using emacs changelog
88mode (C-c C-v to add a new version entry, C-c C-a to add a change
89entry, C-c C-f to finalize the entry) or you can run "dadch".
91When creating a new version entry, bump the upstream version number
92(to 10.0.0 if it was not already that high) if you are changing the
93main package source.  Otherwise, just bump the Debian version
94component (change 0debathena1 to 0debathena2, for instance).
96Developers: Building a package for test purposes on one platform
99After you have prepared a change, you will want to test that it builds
100and perhaps that it works before committing it.  First, if it is an
101Athena source directory using autoconf, run "daconfiscate" to set up
102the autoconf boilerplate which we don't check in.  Second, run
103"daorig" to copy or create an orig tarball in the parent directory if
104necessary.  Third, run "debuild".  The resulting package will be
105placed in the parent directory.
107In order to test if the package works, you can install it with "dpkg
108-i filename.deb".
110Developers: Building a package for test purposes on all platforms
113If the package you are working on interacts with the native OS in ways
114that might vary from platform to platform, you may want to do a test
115build for all platforms.  You will need to do this on or another machine which has been set up with
117build schroots.
119As above, run daconfiscate (if necessary) and then daorig.  Then run
120"debuild -S" to create a source package.  Now cd into the parent
121directory and identify the .dsc file created by debuild -S; it will
122have a name like debathena-just_9.4.0-0debathena2.dsc.  Run "da
123sbuildhack filename.dsc" to perform the package builds.  Each build
124will take place inside an ephemeral chroot based on a snapshot of a
125template for a particular Debian or Ubuntu version.  If a build fails
126and it's not obvious from the build log why, you may need to create
127your own ephemeral chroot session with a command like "schroot -c
128gutsy-amd64-sbuild /bin/sh" and then run debuild from within the
129package sources.
131If the build is successful, it will create a set of packages with
132names like debathena-just_9.4.0-0debathena2~ubuntu6.06_amd64.deb.
134Developers: Building an equivs package
137Most of the packages under debathena/meta are faked up using equivs.
138To build one, just run:
140  equivs-build --full filename.equivs
142These equivs files make reference to ../common, so you must have a
143checkout of debathena/meta/common alongside the particular
144meta-package you are building.
146Developers: The meaning of metapackages
149If you are adding a new package to the repository, you will probably
150at some point want to add it to one of the metapackages so that it
151doesn't have to be installed by hand.  Here are some descriptions
152which may help identify which metapackage is best:
154* locker: Provides access to Athena locker software--AFS and
155  automounter configuration, locker-related utilities, etc.
157* clients: Provides clients (either locally-written, like athinfo and
158  Discuss, or configurations) for Athena services, as well as
159  Athena-specific utility programs like "jot".  Configurations for
160  graphical client software are generally in the workstation package
161  instead, in order to make this package less intrusive.
163* standard: Implies locker and clients.  Also provides Athena shell
164  customizations and dotfiles.
166* login: Implies standard.  Configurations to merge the MIT user
167  namespace into the local machine namespace for the purpose of user
168  lookups and authentication.
170* workstation: Implies login.  Configurations for the graphical login
171  system and graphical client software intended to provide a standard
172  X login experience using Athena home directories.  Still in
173  development.
175* extra-software: Implies a set of Debian packages common to cluster
176  machines and typical workstations.  The resulting software set is
177  rather large, and thus may not be desirable to all workstation
178  configurations.  Only stock Debian packages belong in this
179  metapackage; do not add other Debathena packages to it.
181* cluster: Implies workstation and extra-software.  Also contains
182  configurations for self-maintenance of machines (unattended updates,
183  cleanups between logins, etc.).
185* debian-dev: Intended for developers of the system itself; provides a
186  set of Debian packages used by Debathena for development.
188For the most part a package should be listed in the "Depends:" line of
189a metapackage, but in some cases it is appropriate to hedge by using
190"Recommends:", which will cause aptitude to succeed even if the
191package is unavailable.  For example, a package which doesn't exist in
192all Debian/Ubuntu suites or isn't free can be listed under
193"Recommends:" so that our metapackages still work in all environments.
195Developers: Index of cluster packages
198Some private workstation admins may want specific pieces of cluster
199infrastructure.  With Athena 9.4, they would typically install the
200entire Athena software suite and then turn off features they did not
201want via /etc/athena/rc.conf.  That is not generally possible in
202Athena 10; a debathena-cluster machine acts like a cluster machine in
203all respects.  Instead, the machine owner should install
204debathena-workstation and then install specific packages they might be
205interested in.  At this time, candidate packages include:
207  * debathena-dns-config: Installs a caching DNS resolver and
208    configures the machine to use it.
210  * debathena-tmp-cleaner: Cleans files in /tmp and /var/tmp which
211    have not been recently accessed.
213  * debathena-reactivate: Causes each graphical login to be performed
214    in a separate ephemeral snapshot of the chroot.  This package
215    requires the root filesystem to be an LVM logical volume inside a
216    volume group with 21GB of free space for the snapshots; if that is
217    not the case, it will break graphical logins.  Install with care.
219  * debathena-auto-update: Periodically updates the machine's software
220    and reboots (when no one is logged in) if necessary.
222Cluster packages which are generally not of interest to private
223machine owners include:
225  * debathena-cluster-login-config: Configures a variety of system
226    services to implement the cluster login policy (no tty logins, no
227    user switching, screensaver logout button after 20 minutes, etc.).
229  * debathena-clusterinfo: Looks up the machine's cluster information
230    in Hesiod and caches it on local disk.
232  * debathena-larvnet: Reports to the central larvnet server whether
233    anyone has a graphical login to the machine.
235  * debathena-syslog-config: Configures sysklogd so that some syslog
236    messages are forwarded to a central logging host.
238Release engineer: Bootstrapping the project infrastructure
241  1. Create the package repository (detailed instructions on this
242     pending).  Set the DEBATHENA_APT environment variable to point to
243     the package repository.  Put a copy of the debathena "scripts"
244     subdir in your path.
246  2. Create the build area.
248  3. Build each equivs package under meta/ using "equivs-build --full
249     *.equivs" and upload each with "daequivsupload *.changes".  This
250     has the side-effect of creating the basic structure of the
251     package repository.
253  4. Set up the build server.  The basic structure of the apt
254     repository must work for make-chroot to succeed, so this must
255     happen after step 3.
257  5. For each normal Debian package in dependency order, cd into its
258     directory in the build area and run "da sbuildhack *.dsc" and
259     "daupload-release *_source.changes".  If the package contains
260     only an "Architecture: all" binary package, pass the -A option to
261     both commands.
263     The all-packages script can generate an approximation of the
264     package list in dependency order, but it doesn't work right yet,
265     and ideally it would be possible to do several builds in parallel
266     using a Makefile like the one in scripts/build-server/build-all.
267     Improvements to this machinery are pending.
269  6. For each package under third, run "da ./debathenify-PKG source
270     binary upload".  Any created directories under third/openafs/meta
271     should be chmodded 777 to work around a perl/AFS permissions
272     issue with File::Temp; if this is not done, OpenAFS metapackage
273     builds will fail for other users.
275Release engineer: Updating the apt repository
278  1. ssh to the build server as the builder account and change to the
279     canonical build directory.
281  2. Run "gen-packages" to update the package list.  (Or "gen-packages
282     -c" if you know the AFS checkout of the source tree is up to date;
283     it should update every half hour.)
285  3. Run "ood-packages" to produce a list of out-of-date packages.
287  4. For each out of date package, run "dasource PKG".  Then change to
288     the package directory and run "da sbuildhack *.dsc" and
289     "daupload-release *_source.changes".  If the package contains
290     only an "Architecture: all" binary package, pass the -A option to
291     both commands.
293  5. svn update the meta directory.  If there are new subdirectories,
294     chmod them 777 to work around a perl/AFS permissions issue with
295     File::Temp.  For each updated subdir, change to it, run
296     "equivs-build --full *.equivs", and then "daequivsupload
297     FILENAME.changes" on the produced changes file.
299  6. svn update the third directory.  You can let autodebathenify
300     handle the updated scripts, or you can touch
301     ~/autodebathenify.suppress, make sure it's not running, and run
302     "da ./debathenify-PKG source binary upload" in each updated
303     directory.
305Sometimes you may have to mix up the order of the above steps in order
306to handle build dependencies.
308Release engineer: Setting up a build server
311  1. The build server must be installed with free space in an LVM
312     volume group.  The build chroots consume 2GB each.  There is a
313     known memory corruption issue with LVM snapshots in the kernel
314     used in Ubuntu Gutsy (which is based on 2.6.22), so use a newer
315     kernel such as the one in Ubuntu Hardy (based on 2.6.24) instead.
317  2. Install debathena-standard as per the the instructions in
320  3. apt-key add /afs/
322  4. Install the packages listed in scripts/build-server/packages
323     (using "aptitude install").
325     Note that currently the build system uses a new feature of sbuild
326     which is not in the package version in the main Ubuntu Hardy
327     release.  The proper package version and its prerequisite schroot
328     packages have been backported locally for Hardy, and should be
329     installed from /afs/
330     This will also require installing the devscripts package from the
331     Hardy backports repository.
333  5. Install debathena-login, debathena-ssh-server, and
334     debathena-build-depends (using "aptitude install").
336     (Depending on how recently debathena-build-depends was rebuilt,
337     additional packages might need to be installed to satisfy the
338     build-depends of newer packages.  This can be taken care of later
339     when an error occurs building a source package.)
341  6. Edit /etc/security/access.conf and add a first line:
342     -:ALL EXCEPT root <developer usernames>:ALL
344  7. Edit /etc/pam.d/schroot, comment out "@include common-session",
345     and add:
347       # Basic pam_unix session module in place of common-session.
348       session required
350  8. Edit /etc/group and add the developers to the sbuild group.
352  9. Create /etc/passwd entries for each developer with "hesinfo
353     username passwd >> /etc/passwd" and then run pwconv.
355     (This is not necessary for the login system on the main root
356     environment, but is for the chroot environments.)
358  10. Append to /etc/approx/approx.conf the contents of
359       scripts/build-server/approx.conf.tail.
360      Change the last line from to
361       file:///afs/
362      Add "$interval 0" above the repository lines (only necessary if
363       the version of approx as reported by "dpkg -l approx" is less
364       than 3.0)
365      Run: /etc/init.d/approx restart
367  11. Apply scripts/build-server/mount-defaults.patch.
369  12. Edit /etc/lvm/lvm.conf and change "archive = 1" to "archive = 0"
370      in order to avoid generating a bazillion backup files under
371      /etc/lvm/archive.
373  13. For each supported DIST (see scripts/ run:
375        VG=/dev/blah scripts/build-server/make-chroot DIST i386
376        VG=/dev/blah scripts/build-server/make-chroot DIST amd64
378      substituting the name of the volume group for blah.  Omit the
379      amd64 line if DIST is sarge.
381      Example: VG=/dev/dink scripts/build-server/make-chroot gutsy i386
383      Note: the make-chroot script currently doesn't apt-key add the
384      Athena 10 repository key; if you're setting up an Athena 10 build
385      server, you'll need to add it.
387  14. Create a local account for builder with:
389        adduser --uid 1047 --disabled-password builder
391      Make the home directory mode 700.  Install a
392      daemon/ keytab in the home directory as
393      "keytab".  Install a copy of the secret repository-signing key
394      ( in the home directory's keyring with
395      something like:
397        kinit builder
398        gpg --export-secret-keys | \
399          ssh -l builder machinename gpg --import
401      Create a file named .sbuildrc in builder's homedir containing:
403        $nolog = 1;
404        $mailto = '';
405        $log_dir = '/tmp/sbuild-logs';
406        $maintainer_name = 'Debathena Project <>';
407        $force_orig_source = 1;
408        $sbuild_mode = "user";
409        1;
411      Create a file named .ssh/config in builder's homedir containing:
413        Host
414          User debuildsvn
416      Add builder to the sbuild group in /etc/group.
418      Copy scripts/build-server/autodebathenify to builder's homedir.
419      Create a file named autodebathenify.config in builder's homedir
420      containing:
423        scripts_dir=/afs/
424        build_dir=/afs/
425        packages="cyrus-sasl2-mit evolution-data-server lprng openafs tcsh"
426        export DEBATHENA_APT=/afs/
428      Copy scripts/build-server/autodebathenify.cron to builder's
429      homedir and install it with "crontab autodebathenify.cron".
431      Create a file named .devscripts in builder's homedir containing:
433        DEBUILD_DPKG_BUILDPACKAGE_OPTS="-sa -us -uc -i -I.svn"
435      In builder's homedir, append to .profile:
437        PATH=${PATH}:/afs/
438        export DEBATHENA_APT=/afs/
440      and to .bashrc:
442        bld=/afs/
444Release engineer: Removing a build chroot on the build server
447  1. Run VG=/dev/blah scripts/clean-schroots as root to make sure that
448     the build chroot is not mounted, substituting the name of the
449     volume group for blah.
451  2. Edit /etc/schroot/schroot.conf and delete the section
452     corresponding to the chroot.
454  3. Run lvchange -an blah/chrootname
455     substituting the name of the volume group for blah and the chroot
456     name for chroot.  Example: lvchange -an dink/gutsy-i386-sbuild
458  4. Run lvremove blah/chrootname
460Release engineer: Removing a dist from the apt repository
463  1. Inside the apt repository, edit conf/distributions and remove the
464     distribution section.
466  2. Run reprepro -Vb $DEBATHENA_APT --delete clearvanished
468Release engineer: Setting up a canonical build area
471  1. Create an empty directory and cd into it.  The canonical build
472     area lives in /afs/
474  2. Run gen-packages to create the table of normal Debian packages.
476  3. Run dasource to create subdirs and source packages for each
477     normal Debian package.
479  4. Create checkouts of the meta and third directories:
481     svn co svn+ssh://
482     svn co svn+ssh://
483     chmod 777 meta/*
485     A couple of subdirectories of debathena/meta are normal Debian
486     packages, so this will create redundant copies of those.  Ignore
487     them; they won't be used.
489Release engineer: Adding a new suite
492This process is rarely performed and the infrastructure for it is
493imperfect.  Substitute the name of the new suite for "newdist" in all
494steps below.
496  1. Make sure the apt repository is up to date with respect to the
497     source tree for the existing dists.
499  2. Add the new dist to scripts/  (It is not
500     necessary to add the new dist to codes at this point, but it must
501     be present in the gettag conditional.)
503  3. Create the new distribution in the apt repository's configuration
504     file.  Create the skeleton of the dist by running "reprepro -Vb
505     $DEBATHENA_APT export".
507  4. On the build server, create a chroot for the new distribution as
508     documented above.  This may require downloading and installing a
509     more recent version of the debootstrap package from the
510     -backports dist corresponding to the build server's OS.
512  5. Set the DEBATHENA_BUILD_AREA environment variable to point to the
513     build area.
515  6. Fire up screen.
517  7. mkdir $DEBATHENA_BUILD_AREA/stamps.newdist.
519  8. cd into a checkout of debathena/scripts/build-server/build-all.
521  9. Edit Makefile (and check in the edit) so that suite is the new
522     distribution and psuite is the previously most recent Debian or
523     Ubuntu distribution.
525  10. Run "make".
527  11. Run "make -k all STAMPS=$DEBATHENA_BUILD_AREA/stamps.newdist".
528      You can watch the builds happen in the other windows of the
529      screen session.  It's possible to do several builds at once with
530      make -j N.
532  12. debathenify packages will fail out; they must be built by hand.
533      When the build fails on one, cd into third/packagename in the
534      build area and run "./debathenify newdist-amd64 -A source binary
535      upload" and "./debathenify newdist-i386 binary upload".  Then
536      touch $DEBATHENA_BUILD_AREA/stamps.newdist/packagename.done" and
537      restart the build.
539      The newly created third/openafs/meta directories should be
540      chmodded 777 to work around a perl/AFS permissions issue.
542Release engineer: Maintaining autodebathenify
545autodebathenify is a cron job which runs on the builder account and
546keeps the OpenAFS modules and modified packages under debathena/third
547up to date when there are upstream changes.  It relies on the
550  * builder@ATHENA.MIT.EDU has access to a local account named
551    debuildsvn on with read access to the athena
552    repository.
554  * builder@ATHENA.MIT.EDU has write access to the canonical build
555    area and apt repository in the dev cell.
557  * The builder account on the build machine has a copy of the signing
558    private key for the apt repository.
560The cron job will silently exit if it detects that it is already
561running.  If it fails for any other reason, it will send mail to and touch a file named autodebathenify.suppress
563which will prevent it from running again until manual intervention.
564It is important to get autodebathenify running smoothly or the apt
565repository will become out of date with respect to third-party
566packages, which in turn will compromise the user experience.
568Even if you don't notice failure mail, it's good to check on the
569status of autodebathenify from time to time.  To do this, get tickets
570as builder and ssh to linux-build-10 as builder.  Run "ls -l logs" to
571see what's been going on.  A logfile with size around 48K indicates
572that autodebathenify ran normally but didn't find any new work to do.
573A logfile with size around 60 means that autodebathenify.suppress
574exists and the cron job has stopped running.  A longer logfile
575indicates that autodebathenify attempted to build and upload a
578Possible failure cases include:
580  * One of the upstream apt repositories timed out during an "apt-get
581    update" of an sbuild chroot.  If this happens, you can just remove
582    the autodebathenify.suppress file to get the cron job to start
583    running again.
585  * autodebathenify tried to build an upstream version which already
586    exists.  If this happens, the build will fail at upload time.  If
587    this happens, there is a bug in the part of the debathenify-*
588    script which checks whether our apt repository already has the
589    expected version of the built package.
591  * Debian and Ubuntu have .orig files with the same name but
592    different contexts for a particular third-party package.  This has
593    only happened once, with bash (which is currently not configured
594    into autodebathenify for that reason).  We do not have a general
595    mechanism for resolving such issues at this time.
597  * The new upstream version of the package is sufficiently different
598    to cause our modifications to fail to apply, and our debathenify-*
599    script needs to be adapted appropriately.
601The cron job is run out of builder's home directory, but its canonical
602source location is in debathena/scripts/build-server in this
603repository, should it need to be modified.
605After several months of operation, LVM snapshots on the build server
606will start to become slower and slower, as /etc/lvm/cache/.cache grows
607in size.  Turning off the cache entirely seems to cause schroot to
608occasionally fail; the current solution is to rm /etc/lvm/cache/.cache
609every so often.
611Release engineer: apt repository HTTP server setup
614The apt repository server ( is an ops virtual image
615with httpd and AFS installed.  At the moment, the only customization
616is two changes to /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
618  * The DocumentRoot is set to "/afs/".
619  * The Directory entry for /var/html/www is also changed to
620    "/afs/".
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.